福島核災調查報告的啟示

no-more-fukushima

我是 清大彭明輝的部落格 的讀者,很欣賞彭教授收集資料、剖析與連結資料的能力與見解,日前讀到他寫的〈擁核的朋友該認真看這份報告〉,裡面有很多訊息必須好好思考與消化,不過這段話倒是說出我的心聲:

假如你真的相信「福島核災是可以避免的」,或者江揆所謂「若發生輻射外洩事件,政府會斷然處置」,那麼你應該要認真想一想日本「福島核災事件獨立調查委員會」主席東京大學黑川清教授在執行報告序言裡說的:

任何日本人如果在這一場災難中扮演著決策者的角色,其結果很可能將是相同的。Had other Japanese been in the shoes of those who bear responsibility for this accident, the result may well have been the same.)」

他還說:

我們必須非常痛苦地承認這一場災難是『日本製造』。它的根本原因在於日本根深蒂固的文化:我們反射性的服從、不願意質疑當權者與權威、我們不知變通地固守既定計畫、我們的集體主義、我們的與世隔絕。

一句話:福島核災是一場「必然」的人禍!

找到原文

循著彭教授的麵包屑,我找到了整份報告 PDF 原文,然後又看到有 HTML 版本,於是我利用 Google 翻譯快速地瀏覽一遍,才發覺有很多資訊是沒有被揭露出來的。我把其中重點摘要於下,對核四議題有興趣的人,都應該讀一讀,當然讀原文最好。(結果 國立政治大學的鄭同僚教授 於昨天 4/1 翻譯了這一篇)

是天災,更是人禍

日本福島核災事件獨立調查委員會 (NAIIC) 主席東京大學黑川清 (Kiyoshi Kurokawa) 教授開宗明義就說:

THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI of March 11, 2011 were natural disasters of a magnitude that shocked the entire world. Although triggered by these cataclysmic events, the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cannot be regarded as a natural disaster. It was a profoundly manmade disaster – that could and should have been foreseen and prevented. And its effects could have been mitigated by a more effective human response.
2011 年 3 月 11 日的地震和海嘯是天災,其嚴重程度已震驚了全世界。雖然這些天災觸發了隨後在福島核電廠的事故,卻不能被視為一個天災。這是一個深沉的人為的災難 — 但我們可以 (could) 且應該 (should) 已經預見並阻止。如果有一個更有效率的人員反應,其影響應可以得到緩解。

這種事不應該發生在日本,但卻發生了

How could such an accident occur in Japan, a nation that takes such great pride in its global reputation for excellence in engineering and technology?
這種事故怎麼會發生在日本?日本是這麼一個以卓越的工程和科技享譽全球且引以為傲的民族。

原來是因為一連串的錯誤與疏忽造成的

Our report catalogues a multitude of errors and willful negligence that left the Fukushima plant unprepared for the events of March 11.
我們的報告記載了許多的錯誤和刻意的疏忽,而這些都造成了福島核電廠在 3 月 11 日的事故是毫無準備可言的。

文化因素讓災難無可避免

What must be admitted – very painfully – is that this was a disaster “Made in Japan.”  Its fundamental causes are to be found in the ingrained conventions of Japanese culture:  our reflexive obedience; our reluctance to question authority; our devotion to ‘sticking with the program’; our groupism; and our insularity.
我們必須非常痛苦地承認,這是一場「日本製造」的災難。它的根本原因是來自於根深蒂固的日本文化傳統 — 反射性服從、不願意質疑權威、終身投入同一專案、群體主義和孤立偏狹。

Had other Japanese been in the shoes of those who bear responsibility for this accident,  the result may well have been the same.
即使換成任何其他日本人負責處理這個重大事故,其結果很可能是一樣的。

1970 年代就種下這事故的起因

(前文:1970 年代的石油危機後,日本加速核能發展,其他一概不重要)

With such a powerful mandate, nuclear power became an unstoppable force, immune to scrutiny by civil society. Its regulation was entrusted to the same government bureaucracy responsible for its promotion. At a time when Japan’s self-confidence was soaring, a tightly knit elite with enormous financial resources had diminishing regard for anything ‘not invented here.’
有了這樣強有力的授權,核能成為一種勢不可檔力量而豁免於民間社會的檢驗。其監管機制竟委託給推廣核能的政府官僚組織。當日本自信心高漲時,一群掌握著龐大的經濟資源且關係綿密的菁英,對於任何「非我發明」的事物都不屑一顧。

不自覺地成為共犯

This conceit was reinforced by the collective mindset of Japanese bureaucracy, by which the first duty of any individual bureaucrat is to defend the interests of his organization. Carried to an extreme, this led bureaucrats to put organizational interests ahead of their paramount duty to protect public safety.
日本官僚的心態和個人官僚主義以自我保護組織利益為優先,更強化了這樣的自負。這種心態到了極端,就導致日本官僚們將組織利益凌駕於保障公眾安全這最主要職責之上。

抓到了!就是這種心態

It was this mindset that led to the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant.
正是這種心態,導致在福島第一核電廠的災難。

這種心態普遍存在於社會之中

The consequences of negligence at Fukushima stand out as catastrophic, but the mindset that supported it can be found across Japan. In recognizing that fact, each of us should reflect on our responsibility as individuals in a democratic society.
雖然在福島的疏忽引發災難性的後果,但是造成這種輕輕忽忽的心態,在日本卻是到處可見。基於這個理由,我們每個人都應該反省自己在民主社會中的責任。

每個人都應該反省自己在民主社會中的責任

no-more-fukushima-2

2/26 的 Facebook,我說的:沒能力處理核廢料的,就不要出來蓋核電廠

讀過彭明輝教授的文章,再讀完我黑川清教授的報告摘要,我知道台灣核電只是再一次證明「人為失誤」的必然而已。(接下來我會再舉其他案例。)

我更看見報告中的訪談紀錄,無論是不是福島居民或是不是相關的技術人員,訪談中一再地出現那種因為訊息不明的驚慌、不知道下一步該怎麼辦的無助和絕望。我想,作為一個公民,我能做的就是「寫出來」:我是人,我反核

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